Targeting androgen-independent pathways: new chances for patients with prostate cancer?

C. Cattrini, E. Zanardi, G. Vallome, A. Cavo, L. Cerbone, A. Di Meglio, C. Fabbroni, M. M. Latocca, F. Rizzo, C. Messina, A. Rubagotti, P. Barboro, F. Boccardo

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is the mainstay treatment for advanced prostate cancer (PC). Most patients eventually progress to a condition known as castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), characterized by lack of response to ADT. Although new androgen receptor signaling (ARS) inhibitors and chemotherapeutic agents have been introduced to overcome resistance to ADT, many patients progress because of primary or acquired resistance to these agents. This comprehensive review aims at exploring the mechanisms of resistance and progression of PC, with specific focus on alterations which lead to the activation of androgen receptor (AR)-independent pathways of survival. Our work integrates available clinical and preclinical data on agents which target these pathways, assessing their potential clinical implication in specific settings of patients. Given the rising interest of the scientific community in cancer immunotherapy strategies, further attention is dedicated to the role of immune evasion in PC.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)42-53
Number of pages12
JournalCritical Reviews in Oncology/Hematology
Publication statusPublished - Oct 1 2017


  • Androgen receptor
  • Castration-resistant prostate cancer
  • Phenotypic plasticity
  • Stress response
  • Survival pathways
  • Tumor heterogeneity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Hematology
  • Oncology
  • Geriatrics and Gerontology


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