Due to their potent immunostimulatory capacity, dendritic cells (DC) have become the centerpiece of many vaccine regimens. Immature DC (DCimm) capture, process, and present Ags to CD4+ lymphocytes, which reciprocally activate DCimm through CD40, and the resulting mature DC (DCmat) loose phagocytic capacity, but acquire the ability to efficiently stimulate CD8+ lymphocytes. Recombinant vaccinia viruses (rVV) provide a rapid, easy, and efficient method to introduce Ags into DC, but we observed that rVV infection of DCimm results in blockade of DC maturation in response to all activation signals, including CD40L, monocyte-conditioned medium, LPS, TNF-α, and poly(I:C), and failure to induce a CD8+ response. By contrast, DCmat can be infected with rVV and induce a CD8+ response, but, having lost phagocytic activity, fail to process the Ag via the exogenous class II pathway. To overcome these limitations, we used the CMV protein pp65 as a model Ag and designed a gene containing the lysosomal-associated membrane protein 1 targeting sequence (Sig-pp65-LAMP1) to target pp65 to the class II compartment. DCmat infected with rVV-Sig-pp65-LAMP1 induced proliferation of pp65-specific CD4+ clones and efficiently induced a pp65-specific CD4+ response, suggesting that after DC maturation the intracellular processing machinery for class II remains intact for at least 16 h. Moreover, infection of DCmat with rVV-Sig-pp65-LAMP1 resulted in at least equivalent presentation to CD8+ cells as infection with rVV-pp65. These results demonstrate that despite rVV interference with DCimm maturation, a single targeting vector can deliver Ags to DCmat for the effective simultaneous stimulation of both CD4+ and CD8+ cells.
|Number of pages||8|
|Journal||Journal of Immunology|
|Publication status||Published - Apr 15 2001|
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