OBJECTIVES-To investigate a B-cell-depleting strategy to reverse diabetes in naive NOD mice. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS-We targeted the CD22 receptor on B-cells of naive NOD mice to deplete and reprogram B-cells to effectively reverse autoimmune diabetes. RESULTS-Anti-CD22/cal monoclonal antibody (mAb) therapy resulted in early and prolonged B-cell depletion and delayed disease in pre-diabetic mice. Importantly, when new-onset hyperglycemic mice were treated with the anti-CD22/cal mAb, 100% of B-cell- depleted mice became normoglycemic by 2 days, and 70% of them maintained a state of long-term normoglycemia. Early therapy after onset of hyperglycemia and complete B-cell depletion are essential for optimal efficacy. Treated mice showed an increase in percentage of regulatory T-cells in islets and pancreatic lymph nodes and a diminished immune response to islet peptides in vitro. Transcriptome analysis of reemerging B-cells showed significant changes of a set of proinflammatory genes. Functionally, reemerging B-cells failed to present autoantigen and prevented diabetes when cotransferred with autoreactive CD4 + T-cells into NOD.SCID hosts. CONCLUSIONS-Targeting CD22 depletes and reprograms B- cells and reverses autoimmune diabetes, thereby providing a blueprint for development of novel therapies to cure autoimmune diabetes.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Internal Medicine
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism