Targeting ferroptosis: A novel therapeutic strategy for the treatment of mitochondrial disease-related epilepsy

Amanda H Kahn-Kirby, Akiko Amagata, Celine I Maeder, Janet J Mei, Steve Sideris, Yuko Kosaka, Andrew Hinman, Stephanie A Malone, Joel J Bruegger, Leslie Wang, Virna Kim, William D Shrader, Kevin G Hoff, Joey C Latham, Euan A Ashley, Matthew T Wheeler, Enrico Bertini, Rosalba Carrozzo, Diego Martinelli, Carlo Dionisi-ViciKimberly A Chapman, Gregory M Enns, William Gahl, Lynne Wolfe, Russell P Saneto, Simon C Johnson, Jeffrey K Trimmer, Matthew B Klein, Charles R Holst

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Abstract

BACKGROUND: Mitochondrial disease is a family of genetic disorders characterized by defects in the generation and regulation of energy. Epilepsy is a common symptom of mitochondrial disease, and in the vast majority of cases, refractory to commonly used antiepileptic drugs. Ferroptosis is a recently-described form of iron- and lipid-dependent regulated cell death associated with glutathione depletion and production of lipid peroxides by lipoxygenase enzymes. Activation of the ferroptosis pathway has been implicated in a growing number of disorders, including epilepsy. Given that ferroptosis is regulated by balancing the activities of glutathione peroxidase-4 (GPX4) and 15-lipoxygenase (15-LO), targeting these enzymes may provide a rational therapeutic strategy to modulate seizure. The clinical-stage therapeutic vatiquinone (EPI-743, α-tocotrienol quinone) was reported to reduce seizure frequency and associated morbidity in children with the mitochondrial disorder pontocerebellar hypoplasia type 6. We sought to elucidate the molecular mechanism of EPI-743 and explore the potential of targeting 15-LO to treat additional mitochondrial disease-associated epilepsies.

METHODS: Primary fibroblasts and B-lymphocytes derived from patients with mitochondrial disease-associated epilepsy were cultured under standardized conditions. Ferroptosis was induced by treatment with the irreversible GPX4 inhibitor RSL3 or a combination of pharmacological glutathione depletion and excess iron. EPI-743 was co-administered and endpoints, including cell viability and 15-LO-dependent lipid oxidation, were measured.

RESULTS: EPI-743 potently prevented ferroptosis in patient cells representing five distinct pediatric disease syndromes with associated epilepsy. Cytoprotection was preceded by a dose-dependent decrease in general lipid oxidation and the specific 15-LO product 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (15-HETE).

CONCLUSIONS: These findings support the continued clinical evaluation of EPI-743 as a therapeutic agent for PCH6 and other mitochondrial diseases with associated epilepsy.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)e0214250
JournalPLoS One
Volume14
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Mar 28 2019

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Kahn-Kirby, A. H., Amagata, A., Maeder, C. I., Mei, J. J., Sideris, S., Kosaka, Y., Hinman, A., Malone, S. A., Bruegger, J. J., Wang, L., Kim, V., Shrader, W. D., Hoff, K. G., Latham, J. C., Ashley, E. A., Wheeler, M. T., Bertini, E., Carrozzo, R., Martinelli, D., ... Holst, C. R. (2019). Targeting ferroptosis: A novel therapeutic strategy for the treatment of mitochondrial disease-related epilepsy. PLoS One, 14(3), e0214250. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0214250