Targeting Immune Regulatory Networks to Counteract Immune Suppression in Cancer

Chiara Camisaschi, Viviana Vallacchi, Elisabetta Vergani, Marcella Tazzari, Simona Ferro, Alessandra Tuccitto, Olga Kuchuk, Eriomina Shahaj, Roberta Sulsenti, Chiara Castelli, Monica Rodolfo, Licia Rivoltini, Veronica Huber

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

The onset of cancer is unavoidably accompanied by suppression of antitumor immunity. This occurs through mechanisms ranging from the progressive accumulation of regulatory immune cells associated with chronic immune stimulation and inflammation, to the expression of immunosuppressive molecules. Some of them are being successfully exploited as therapeutic targets, with impressive clinical results achieved in patients, as in the case of immune checkpoint inhibitors. To limit immune attack, tumor cells exploit specific pathways to render the tumor microenvironment hostile for antitumor effector cells. Local acidification might, in fact, anergize activated T cells and facilitate the accumulation of immune suppressive cells. Moreover, the release of extracellular vesicles by tumor cells can condition distant immune sites contributing to the onset of systemic immune suppression. Understanding which mechanisms may be prevalent in specific cancers or disease stages, and identifying possible strategies to counterbalance would majorly contribute to improving clinical efficacy of cancer immunotherapy. Here, we intend to highlight these mechanisms, how they could be targeted and the tools that might be available in the near future to achieve this goal.

Original languageEnglish
JournalVaccines
Volume4
Issue number4
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Nov 4 2016

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Neoplasms
Tumor Microenvironment
Immunosuppressive Agents
Immunotherapy
Immunity
Inflammation
T-Lymphocytes
Therapeutics
Extracellular Vesicles

Keywords

  • Review
  • Journal Article

Cite this

Targeting Immune Regulatory Networks to Counteract Immune Suppression in Cancer. / Camisaschi, Chiara; Vallacchi, Viviana; Vergani, Elisabetta; Tazzari, Marcella; Ferro, Simona; Tuccitto, Alessandra; Kuchuk, Olga; Shahaj, Eriomina; Sulsenti, Roberta; Castelli, Chiara; Rodolfo, Monica; Rivoltini, Licia; Huber, Veronica.

In: Vaccines, Vol. 4, No. 4, 04.11.2016.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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abstract = "The onset of cancer is unavoidably accompanied by suppression of antitumor immunity. This occurs through mechanisms ranging from the progressive accumulation of regulatory immune cells associated with chronic immune stimulation and inflammation, to the expression of immunosuppressive molecules. Some of them are being successfully exploited as therapeutic targets, with impressive clinical results achieved in patients, as in the case of immune checkpoint inhibitors. To limit immune attack, tumor cells exploit specific pathways to render the tumor microenvironment hostile for antitumor effector cells. Local acidification might, in fact, anergize activated T cells and facilitate the accumulation of immune suppressive cells. Moreover, the release of extracellular vesicles by tumor cells can condition distant immune sites contributing to the onset of systemic immune suppression. Understanding which mechanisms may be prevalent in specific cancers or disease stages, and identifying possible strategies to counterbalance would majorly contribute to improving clinical efficacy of cancer immunotherapy. Here, we intend to highlight these mechanisms, how they could be targeted and the tools that might be available in the near future to achieve this goal.",
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AU - Camisaschi, Chiara

AU - Vallacchi, Viviana

AU - Vergani, Elisabetta

AU - Tazzari, Marcella

AU - Ferro, Simona

AU - Tuccitto, Alessandra

AU - Kuchuk, Olga

AU - Shahaj, Eriomina

AU - Sulsenti, Roberta

AU - Castelli, Chiara

AU - Rodolfo, Monica

AU - Rivoltini, Licia

AU - Huber, Veronica

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AB - The onset of cancer is unavoidably accompanied by suppression of antitumor immunity. This occurs through mechanisms ranging from the progressive accumulation of regulatory immune cells associated with chronic immune stimulation and inflammation, to the expression of immunosuppressive molecules. Some of them are being successfully exploited as therapeutic targets, with impressive clinical results achieved in patients, as in the case of immune checkpoint inhibitors. To limit immune attack, tumor cells exploit specific pathways to render the tumor microenvironment hostile for antitumor effector cells. Local acidification might, in fact, anergize activated T cells and facilitate the accumulation of immune suppressive cells. Moreover, the release of extracellular vesicles by tumor cells can condition distant immune sites contributing to the onset of systemic immune suppression. Understanding which mechanisms may be prevalent in specific cancers or disease stages, and identifying possible strategies to counterbalance would majorly contribute to improving clinical efficacy of cancer immunotherapy. Here, we intend to highlight these mechanisms, how they could be targeted and the tools that might be available in the near future to achieve this goal.

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