TARP syndrome: Long-term survival, anatomic patterns of congenital heart defects, differential diagnosis and pathogenetic considerations

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TARP syndrome (TARPS) is an X-linked syndromic condition including Robin sequence, congenital heart defects, developmental delay, feeding difficulties and talipes equinovarus, as major features. The disease is caused by inactivating mutations in RBM10 which encodes for a RNA binding motif protein involved in transcript processing. We herein report a male born from healthy and non-consanguineous parents, presenting prenatal record of intrauterine fetal growth retardation, and postnatal features including growth and developmental delays, CNS abnormalities, facial dysmorphisms, bilateral syndactyly at the hands, talipes equinovarus and congenital heart defects. By using trio-based Whole Exome Sequencing approach, a maternally inherited RBM10 frameshift variant causing decay of the RBM10 transcript was identified. Despite the syndrome is considered lethal in affected males, our subject with molecularly confirmed TARPS is still alive at 11 years of age supporting the chance of surviving. Long-term surviving in TARPS is extremely rare and should be considered in genetic counselling and clinical follow up of the syndrome. We provide the natural history of the syndrome, reviewing the major clinical characteristics. Congenital heart defects are confirmed as specific diagnostic markers for the syndrome. In addition, cardiac anatomical details are defining a possible clinical overlap with syndromic conditions related to the hedgehog pathway and/or primary cilium anomalies as Oral-Facial-Digital or Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndromes.

Original languageEnglish
JournalEuropean Journal of Medical Genetics
Publication statusPublished - Sep 3 2018


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