Human glutathione S-transferase P1-1 (GST P1-1) is a homodimeric enzyme expressed in several organs as well as in the upper layers of epidermis, playing a role against carcinogenic and toxic compounds. A sophisticated mechanism of temperature adaptation has been developed by this enzyme. In fact, above 35 °C, glutathione (GSH) binding to GST P1-1 displays positive cooperativity, whereas negative cooperativity occurs below 25 °C. This binding mechanism minimizes changes of GSH affinity for GST P1-1 because of temperature fluctuation. This is a likely advantage for epithelial skin cells, which are naturally exposed to temperature variation and, incidentally, to carcinogenic compounds, always needing efficient detoxifying systems. As a whole, GST P1-1 represents the first enzyme which displays a temperature-dependent homotropic regulation of substrate (e.g. GSH) binding.
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