BACKGROUND: Long-term patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) and predictors of success or failure after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction are not fully understood, especially when combined with a lateral extra-articular reconstruction.
PURPOSE: To assess the long-term PROMs, revision rate, and predictors of success or failure after ACL reconstructions using an over-the-top surgical technique with single-bundle hamstring tendon autografts and a lateral extra-articular reconstruction.
STUDY DESIGN: Case series; Level of evidence, 4.
METHODS: The study cohort consisted of 267 consecutive patients (mean age, 30.7 years) who underwent ACL reconstruction with an over-the-top surgical technique with single-bundle hamstring tendon autografts and a lateral extra-articular augmentation between November 2007 and May 2009. The number of subsequent ACL revisions and reoperations were recorded. Subjective clinical status was assessed with PROMs-specifically, the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS), Lysholm, Tegner, and visual analog scale for pain-at a minimum follow-up of 10 years.
RESULTS: Overall, 3% of patients underwent ACL revision, with a 10-year survival rate of 96.3%. High sport activity (hazard ratio, 6.9; P = .285) and concomitant meniscal lesion (hazard ratio, 2.6; P = .0487) were predictors of ACL revision or new meniscectomy. The mean ± SD Lysholm score was 94.1 ± 10.8, while that for the visual analog scale for pain was 0.2 ± 0.9 at rest and 2.1 ± 2.6 during activity. KOOS subscale scores were as follows: 95.7 ± 8.1 for Pain, 92.5 ± 10.5 for Symptoms, 98.4 ± 7.4 for Activities of Daily Living, 90.7 ± 17.2 for Sport, and 91.2 ± 17.1 for Quality of Life; respectively, 88%, 99%, 81%, 89%, and 91% of patients achieved the Patient Acceptable Symptom State. Female sex and chondropathy with Outerbridge grade ≥2 were predictors of worse KOOS subscales. Overall, 82% of patients returned to sport, and 57% were still participating at the 10-year evaluation.
CONCLUSION: ACL reconstruction with an over-the-top surgical technique with single-bundle hamstring autografts and a lateral extra-articular reconstruction provided satisfactory results in terms of function, symptoms, sports, and quality of life in 80% to 90% of patients after 10 years. Long-term survivorship was 96%. Sport participation declined from 82% postoperatively to 57% at long-term follow-up. A concomitant medial meniscal lesion was a predictor of higher risk of ACL failure or new meniscal lesion, while advanced chondropathy and female sex were predictors of higher pain, lower function, and poor quality of life scores.
- Activities of Daily Living
- Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injuries/surgery
- Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction/methods
- Follow-Up Studies
- Hamstring Tendons/transplantation
- Pain Measurement
- Patient Reported Outcome Measures
- Quality of Life
- lateral plasty