The metabolic syndrome (MS), a cluster of risk factors, such as obesity, hyperglycemia, hypertension and dyslipidemia, contributes to the development of cardio-vascular diseases and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2). Insulin resistance (IR) plays a key role in MS being strongly linked to abdominal visceral fat. Treatment for obese patients with MS should aim at improving IR, delaying the onset of DM2 and at reducing cardio-vascular risk. Weight loss, first therapeutic target, may be obtained through life-style modifications and anti-obesity drugs or bariatric surgery, at need. In these patients drug therapy is necessary if therapeutic life-style changes are not sufficient. Some drugs have adverse metabolic effects, therefore the therapeutic choices must be specific and rational. Metformin, Thiazolidinediones and Acarbose are anti-hyperglycemic drugs of choice: they reduce the incidence of DM2 and IR (or improve insulin sensitivity) and they decrease or stabilize the visceral adipose tissue mass (Thiazolidinediones increases subcutaneous fat only). Also Angiotensin II receptor blockers and Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors reduce the incidence of DM2 and insulin resistance and they are first-line antihypertensive drugs in MS. Calcium channel blockers, Alpha-1 antagonists and Alpha-2 agonists drugs are metabolically neutral and slight weight gains are related to the hydro-sodium retention. Beta-blockers and Diuretics, except for Indapamide and Anti-aldosterone drugs, can reduce insulin sensitivity, impair lipid profile and increase DM2 incidence; they are not first-line therapy yet they are necessary in selected cases only. Statins, Fibrates and ω-3 Fatty acids are indicated to normalize dyslipidemia. Low doses of acetylsalicylic acid are also recommended.
|Translated title of the contribution||Terapeutic options for metabolic syndrome in obese patients|
|Number of pages||8|
|Publication status||Published - Sep 2007|
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