Terminology for contrast-enhanced sonography: A practical glossary

Orlando Catalano, Vincenzo Migaleddu, Emilio Quaia, Giuseppe Caruso

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Objective. The purpose of this glossary is to offer an updated guide to the correct terminology for contrast-enhanced sonography. Methods. This report was prepared by a panel of radiologists from the Sonography Section of the Italian Association of Medical Radiology. A leading author prepared a list of terms based on a comprehensive literature survey. The draft was analyzed by 3 experts on the topic of contrast-enhanced sonography. These reviewers reached a consensus and prepared the final version. Results. A list of 137 terms is included. These terms are briefly defined. Their proper application is discussed, with special reference to potential misleading uses. Conclusions. Contrast-enhanced sonography is a relatively new diagnostic tool, now entering clinical practice in several countries. Use of appropriate, universal terminology is mandatory in the scientific setting to allow comparison between different published experiences. Additionally, use of clear, standardized terminology is necessary in the clinical setting to facilitate report understanding by the referring physician. Standardized, nonequivocal nomenclature may also help future diffusion of sonographic contrast media in countries where their application is still not approved.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)717-730
Number of pages14
JournalJournal of Ultrasound in Medicine
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2007


  • Contrast media
  • Contrast-enhanced sonography
  • Ultrasound terminology

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
  • Radiological and Ultrasound Technology
  • Acoustics and Ultrasonics


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