Testing the diagnostic accuracy of [18F]FDG-PET in discriminating spinal- and bulbar-onset amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

Arianna Sala, Leonardo Iaccarino, Piercarlo Fania, Emilia G. Vanoli, Federico Fallanca, Caterina Pagnini, Chiara Cerami, Andrea Calvo, Antonio Canosa, Marco Pagani, Adriano Chiò, Angelina Cistaro, Daniela Perani

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Purpose: The role for [18F]FDG-PET in supporting amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) diagnosis is not fully established. In this study, we aim at evaluating [18F]FDG-PET hypo- and hyper-metabolism patterns in spinal- and bulbar-onset ALS cases, at the single-subject level, testing the diagnostic value in discriminating the two conditions, and the correlations with core clinical symptoms severity. Methods: We included 95 probable-ALS patients with [18F]FDG-PET scan and clinical follow-up. [18F]FDG-PET images were analyzed with an optimized voxel-based-SPM method. The resulting single-subject SPM-t maps were used to: (a) assess brain regional hypo- and hyper-metabolism; (b) evaluate the accuracy of regional hypo- and hyper metabolism in discriminating spinal vs. bulbar-onset ALS; (c) perform correlation analysis with motor symptoms severity, as measured by ALS-FRS-R. Results: Primary motor cortex showed the most frequent hypo-metabolism in both spinal-onset (∼57%) and bulbar-onset (∼64%) ALS; hyper-metabolism was prevalent in the cerebellum in both spinal-onset (∼56.5%) and bulbar-onset (∼55.7%) ALS, and in the occipital cortex in bulbar-onset (∼62.5%) ALS. Regional hypo- and hyper-metabolism yielded a very low accuracy (AUC < 0.63) in discriminating spinal- vs. bulbar-onset ALS, as obtained from single-subject SPM-t-maps. Severity of motor symptoms correlated with hypo-metabolism in sensorimotor cortex in spinal-onset ALS, and with cerebellar hyper-metabolism in bulbar-onset ALS. Conclusions: The high variability in regional hypo- and hyper-metabolism patterns, likely reflecting the heterogeneous pathology and clinical phenotypes, limits the diagnostic potential of [18F]FDG-PET in discriminating spinal and bulbar onset patients.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1117-1131
Number of pages15
JournalEuropean Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Volume46
Issue number5
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - May 1 2019

Keywords

  • Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
  • Biomarkers
  • Brain metabolism
  • Diagnosis
  • [18F]FDG-PET

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging

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    Sala, A., Iaccarino, L., Fania, P., Vanoli, E. G., Fallanca, F., Pagnini, C., Cerami, C., Calvo, A., Canosa, A., Pagani, M., Chiò, A., Cistaro, A., & Perani, D. (2019). Testing the diagnostic accuracy of [18F]FDG-PET in discriminating spinal- and bulbar-onset amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, 46(5), 1117-1131. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00259-018-4246-2