Testosterone deficiency is a generalized phenomenon seen in the course of chronic heart failure (CHF). Reduction in circulating testosterone level is a predictor of deterioration of functional capacity over time, underscoring the role of testosterone deficiency in CHF. Anabolic hormones are determinants of exercise capacity and circulating levels of anabolic hormones strongly determine muscle mass and strength. Testosterone deficiency is involved in the pathophysiology of CHF, contributing to some features of this syndrome, such as the reduced muscle mass, abnormal energy handling, fatigue, dyspnea and, finally, cachexia. This review summarizes current knowledge on the role of testosterone deficiency in the pathophysiology of CHF, gaining insights from the potential implications of testosterone as supplementation therapy.
- Exercise capacity
- Heart failure
- Muscular function
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism