Multiple Sclerosis (MS) presents in a variety of clinical forms associated with a diverse grade of neurological impairment, different prognosis and, possibly, multiple pathogenic mechanisms. Thus, whereas relapsing-remitting (RR) MS appears to be largely driven by inflammatory processes, neurodegeneration, partially independent from inflammation, drives primary progressive (PP) and secondary progressive (SP) MS. An extensive analysis of neuroinflammation in the different forms of MS was performed by evaluating immunophenotypic and functional parameters in MBP-stimulated T lymphocytes of 103 MS patients (26 benign (BE) MS, 30 RRMS, 33 SPMS and 14 PPMS) and 40 healthy controls (HC). Results showed that: i) IL-17-producing and RORC/γt-expressing CD4+ T cells (TH17 lymphocytes), as well as IL-6 expressing CD14+ cell were augmented in all patients; ii) IL-22-expressing cells were increased in all forms of MS with the exception of PPMS; iii) TGF-β-expressing B cells were increased only in RRMS; and iv) GATA3-, NFATc-1, IL-13-, and IL-25-expressing cells (TH2 lymphocytes) were augmented in RRMS and BEMS patients alone. Data herein indicate a pivotal pathogenic role of TH17-driven inflammation in all clinical forms of MS and suggest that control over disease (RRMS and BEMS) is associated not with lack of inflammation per se, but rather with the activation of immune-mediated anti-inflammatory mechanisms. These results could help the design of novel diagnostic and therapeutic approaches.
|Number of pages||13|
|Journal||European Journal of Inflammation|
|Publication status||Published - Jan 2013|
- Multiple sclerosis
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Immunology and Allergy