The 15-months clinical experience of sars-cov-2: A literature review of therapies and adjuvants

Alessio Danilo Inchingolo, Gianna Dipalma, Angelo Michele Inchingolo, Giuseppina Malcangi, Luigi Santacroce, Maria Teresa D’oria, Ciro Gargiulo Isacco, Ioana Roxana Bordea, Sebastian Candrea, Antonio Scarano, Benedetta Morandi, Massimo Del Fabbro, Marco Farronato, Gianluca Martino Tartaglia, Mario Giosuè Balzanelli, Andrea Ballini, Ludovica Nucci, Felice Lorusso, Silvio Taschieri, Francesco Inchingolo

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Background: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the virus responsible for the coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) that emerged in December 2019 in Wuhan, China, and rapidly spread worldwide, with a daily increase in confirmed cases and infection-related deaths. The World Health Organization declared a pandemic on the 11th of March 2020. COVID-19 presents flu-like symptoms that become severe in high-risk medically compromised subjects. The aim of this study was to perform an updated overview of the treatments and adjuvant protocols for COVID-19. Methods: A systematic literature search of databases was performed (MEDLINE PubMed, Google Scholar, UpToDate, Embase, and Web of Science) using the keywords: “COVID-19”, “2019-nCoV”, “coronavirus” and “SARS-CoV-2” (date range: 1 January 2019 to 31st October 2020), focused on clinical features and treatments. Results: The main treatments retrieved were antivirals, antimalarials, convalescent plasma, immunomodulators, corticosteroids, anticoagulants, and mesenchymal stem cells. Most of the described treatments may provide benefits to COVID-19 subjects, but no one protocol has definitively proven its efficacy. Conclusions: While many efforts are being spent worldwide in research aimed at identifying early diagnostic methods and evidence-based effective treatments, mass vaccination is thought to be the best option against this disease in the near future.

Original languageEnglish
Article number881
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2021


  • Anticoagulants
  • Antimalarials
  • Antioxidants
  • Antivirals
  • Autologous stem cells
  • Corticosteroids
  • Immunomodulators
  • Immunotherapy
  • SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19)
  • Vaccines

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Physiology
  • Molecular Biology
  • Clinical Biochemistry
  • Cell Biology


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