The 2016 European Thyroid Association/European Group on Graves' orbitopathy guidelines for the management of graves' orbitopathy

Luigi Bartalena, Lelio Baldeschi, Kostas Boboridis, Anja Eckstein, George J. Kahaly, Claudio Marcocci, Petros Perros, Mario Salvi, Wilmar M. Wiersinga

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Graves' orbitopathy (GO) is the main extrathyroidal manifestation of Graves' disease, though severe forms are rare. Management of GO is often suboptimal, largely because available treatments do not target pathogenic mechanisms of the disease. Treatment should rely on a thorough assessment of the activity and severity of GO and its impact on the patient's quality of life. Local measures (artificial tears, ointments and dark glasses) and control of risk factors for progression (smoking and thyroid dysfunction) are recommended for all patients. In mild GO, a watchful strategy is usually sufficient, but a 6-month course of selenium supplementation is effective in improving mild manifestations and preventing progression to more severe forms. High-dose glucocorticoids (GCs), preferably via the intravenous route, are the first line of treatment for moderate-to-severe and active GO. The optimal cumulative dose appears to be 4.5-5 g of methylprednisolone, but higher doses (up to 8 g) can be used for more severe forms. Shared decision-making is recommended for selecting second-line treatments, including a second course of intravenous GCs, oral GCs combined with orbital radiotherapy or cyclosporine, rituximab or watchful waiting. Rehabilitative treatment (orbital decompression surgery, squint surgery or eyelid surgery) is needed in the majority of patients when GO has been conservatively managed and inactivated by immunosuppressive treatment.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)9-26
Number of pages18
JournalEuropean Thyroid Journal
Volume5
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Mar 1 2016

Keywords

  • Cyclosporine
  • Eyelid surgery
  • Glucocorticoids
  • Graves' orbitopathy
  • Orbital decompression
  • Orbital radiotherapy
  • Rituximab
  • Selenium
  • Squint surgery

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism

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