To date, the diagnosis of mental disorders has been based on clinical observation and the 5th revised edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), published in May 2013, has confirmed this approach placing disorders in discrete statistical categories like the preceding editions. This has disappointed the expectations of those who hypothesized the revolution of a "neuroscience based DSM", where the psychiatric diagnoses are based on the identification of sensitive biological markers. Another controversial point is that, according to several authors, the DSM-5 does not provide a clear definition of the boundaries between mental disorders and the range of normality. However, in the new edition of the DSM, there are several interesting changes, such as the introduction of the "dimensions" that are aimed to bridge the gap between the historical categorical approach and the new research data and the reclassification and the redefinition of most categories. Purpose of this editorial is to provide a brief overview of these changes and critical aspects.
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