The Age-Dependent Increase of Metabolic Syndrome Requires More Extensive and Aggressive Non-Pharmacological and Pharmacological Interventions: A Cross-Sectional Study in an Italian Cohort of Obese Women

Antonello E. Rigamonti, Sabrina Cicolini, Sofia Tamini, Diana Caroli, Silvano G. Cella, Alessandro Sartorio

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Background. Metabolic syndrome is a combination of cardiovascular risk factors (i.e., visceral obesity, dyslipidaemia, glucose intolerance, and hypertension), which entails critical issues in terms of medical management and public health. Methods. The aim of the present cross-sectional study was to investigate the age-related changes of the single IDF (International Diabetes Federation) diagnostic criteria for metabolic syndrome (waist circumference, WC; high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, HDL-C; triglycerides; glucose; systolic and diastolic blood pressure, SBP and DBP) in a large population of (Italian) obese women (n = 1.000; body mass index, BMI >30 kg/m2; age: 18-83 yrs), subdivided into two subgroups depending on the presence (n = 630) or absence (n = 370) of metabolic syndrome. Parallelly, the percentages of treatment with hypolipidaemic drugs, hypoglycaemics, and antihypertensives and, among the treated subjects, of control of the underlying condition in accordance with the cut-offs of IDF criteria for dyslipidaemia, hyperglycaemia, and hypertension were determined over six age ranges (i.e., 18-30, 31-40, 41-50, 51-60, 61-70, and > 70 yrs). Results. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome increased with advancing age. In the subgroup with metabolic syndrome, an age-dependent increase in HDL-C, glycaemia, and SBP occurred, while the visceral adiposity was stable. In the same subgroup, triglycerides and DBP decreased age-dependently. In the subgroup without metabolic syndrome, an age-dependent increase in WC, HDL-C, glycaemia, SBP, and DBP was observed. A progressive age-dependent increase in the percentage of patients pharmacologically treated for the cardiometabolic abnormalities was detected in patients with metabolic syndrome, a similar trend being also observed in patients without metabolic syndrome only for the antihypertensives. A clear-cut disproportion between treated versus adequately controlled women (with pharmacotherapy) was detected in the whole population. Conclusions. At least in an Italian context of obese females, the age-dependent worsening of glycaemia and BP exerts a fundamental pathophysiological role in the progressive increase of metabolic syndrome with advancing age, which appears to be not adequately treated in a large part of obese subjects. The results of the present study might be useful for public health decision-makers for programming future more extensive and aggressive non-pharmacological and pharmacological interventions in the obese population.

Original languageEnglish
Article number5576286
JournalInternational Journal of Endocrinology
Volume2021
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2021

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Endocrinology
  • Endocrine and Autonomic Systems

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