The anarchic brain in action: The contribution of task-based fMRI studies to the understanding of Gilles de la Tourette syndrome

Laura Zapparoli, Mauro Porta, Eraldo Paulesu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Purpose of review Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS) is a frequent neurological disorder characterized by the production of tics, and frequently associated with obsessive-compulsive disorder or attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. The aim of this article is to summarize the contribution of imaging activation techniques to the study of the syndrome. Recent findings GTS has been studied with a variety of functional MRI (fMRI)/PET activation paradigms to characterize the origin of tics or their suppression, and how they compare physiologically with voluntary actions or response inhibitions. Current studies indicate overactivations of prefrontal and premotor cortices, including the supplementary motor area, and subcortical structures. Resting state functional connectivity studies complement activation studies in showing perturbed connectivity of cortico-subcortical networks. Several such findings correlate with the severity of the disease. Summary fMRI activation techniques are contributing a system-level neurophysiological description of GTS and bridge the gap between animal models and clinical observations. fMRI clarifies brain networks involved in different aspects of GTS phenomenology with some good clinical face validity. A future generation of fMRI studies should have higher ambitions and contribute, for example, to treatment optimization including the identification of ideal targets for deep brain stimulation in drug-resistant cases; however, such goals will be achieved only through controlled large-scale cooperative studies.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)604-611
Number of pages8
JournalCurrent Opinion in Neurology
Volume28
Issue number6
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2015

Fingerprint

Tourette Syndrome
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Tics
Motor Cortex
Brain
Deep Brain Stimulation
Complement Activation
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder
Social Responsibility
Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity
Prefrontal Cortex
Nervous System Diseases
Reproducibility of Results
Animal Models
Pharmaceutical Preparations
Therapeutics

Keywords

  • Activation
  • Functional connectivity
  • Functional MRI
  • Gilles de la Tourette syndrome
  • Meta-analysis
  • PET
  • Review

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Neurology
  • Neurology

Cite this

@article{ddbdf7b5c6544ae7913a3010e70e7c1c,
title = "The anarchic brain in action: The contribution of task-based fMRI studies to the understanding of Gilles de la Tourette syndrome",
abstract = "Purpose of review Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS) is a frequent neurological disorder characterized by the production of tics, and frequently associated with obsessive-compulsive disorder or attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. The aim of this article is to summarize the contribution of imaging activation techniques to the study of the syndrome. Recent findings GTS has been studied with a variety of functional MRI (fMRI)/PET activation paradigms to characterize the origin of tics or their suppression, and how they compare physiologically with voluntary actions or response inhibitions. Current studies indicate overactivations of prefrontal and premotor cortices, including the supplementary motor area, and subcortical structures. Resting state functional connectivity studies complement activation studies in showing perturbed connectivity of cortico-subcortical networks. Several such findings correlate with the severity of the disease. Summary fMRI activation techniques are contributing a system-level neurophysiological description of GTS and bridge the gap between animal models and clinical observations. fMRI clarifies brain networks involved in different aspects of GTS phenomenology with some good clinical face validity. A future generation of fMRI studies should have higher ambitions and contribute, for example, to treatment optimization including the identification of ideal targets for deep brain stimulation in drug-resistant cases; however, such goals will be achieved only through controlled large-scale cooperative studies.",
keywords = "Activation, Functional connectivity, Functional MRI, Gilles de la Tourette syndrome, Meta-analysis, PET, Review",
author = "Laura Zapparoli and Mauro Porta and Eraldo Paulesu",
year = "2015",
doi = "10.1097/WCO.0000000000000261",
language = "English",
volume = "28",
pages = "604--611",
journal = "Current Opinion in Neurology",
issn = "1350-7540",
publisher = "Lippincott Williams and Wilkins",
number = "6",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - The anarchic brain in action

T2 - The contribution of task-based fMRI studies to the understanding of Gilles de la Tourette syndrome

AU - Zapparoli, Laura

AU - Porta, Mauro

AU - Paulesu, Eraldo

PY - 2015

Y1 - 2015

N2 - Purpose of review Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS) is a frequent neurological disorder characterized by the production of tics, and frequently associated with obsessive-compulsive disorder or attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. The aim of this article is to summarize the contribution of imaging activation techniques to the study of the syndrome. Recent findings GTS has been studied with a variety of functional MRI (fMRI)/PET activation paradigms to characterize the origin of tics or their suppression, and how they compare physiologically with voluntary actions or response inhibitions. Current studies indicate overactivations of prefrontal and premotor cortices, including the supplementary motor area, and subcortical structures. Resting state functional connectivity studies complement activation studies in showing perturbed connectivity of cortico-subcortical networks. Several such findings correlate with the severity of the disease. Summary fMRI activation techniques are contributing a system-level neurophysiological description of GTS and bridge the gap between animal models and clinical observations. fMRI clarifies brain networks involved in different aspects of GTS phenomenology with some good clinical face validity. A future generation of fMRI studies should have higher ambitions and contribute, for example, to treatment optimization including the identification of ideal targets for deep brain stimulation in drug-resistant cases; however, such goals will be achieved only through controlled large-scale cooperative studies.

AB - Purpose of review Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS) is a frequent neurological disorder characterized by the production of tics, and frequently associated with obsessive-compulsive disorder or attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. The aim of this article is to summarize the contribution of imaging activation techniques to the study of the syndrome. Recent findings GTS has been studied with a variety of functional MRI (fMRI)/PET activation paradigms to characterize the origin of tics or their suppression, and how they compare physiologically with voluntary actions or response inhibitions. Current studies indicate overactivations of prefrontal and premotor cortices, including the supplementary motor area, and subcortical structures. Resting state functional connectivity studies complement activation studies in showing perturbed connectivity of cortico-subcortical networks. Several such findings correlate with the severity of the disease. Summary fMRI activation techniques are contributing a system-level neurophysiological description of GTS and bridge the gap between animal models and clinical observations. fMRI clarifies brain networks involved in different aspects of GTS phenomenology with some good clinical face validity. A future generation of fMRI studies should have higher ambitions and contribute, for example, to treatment optimization including the identification of ideal targets for deep brain stimulation in drug-resistant cases; however, such goals will be achieved only through controlled large-scale cooperative studies.

KW - Activation

KW - Functional connectivity

KW - Functional MRI

KW - Gilles de la Tourette syndrome

KW - Meta-analysis

KW - PET

KW - Review

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84947495254&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84947495254&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1097/WCO.0000000000000261

DO - 10.1097/WCO.0000000000000261

M3 - Article

C2 - 26402403

AN - SCOPUS:84947495254

VL - 28

SP - 604

EP - 611

JO - Current Opinion in Neurology

JF - Current Opinion in Neurology

SN - 1350-7540

IS - 6

ER -