The anti-inflammatory effects of exercise in the syndromic thread of diabetes and autoimmunity

R. Codella, L. Luzi, L. Inverardi, C. Ricordi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


A unifying thread over the wide spectrum of diabetes might be the triggering of innate immunological and inflammatory pathways leading to insulin resistance, β-cell dysfunction and β-cell destruction: the hybrid features of type 1 and type 2 diabetes. In fact, hyperglycemia can arise from a deficit in insulin action, insulin secretion, or both. Regularly exercising at moderate intensity has been shown to efficiently and positively impact upon physiological imbalances caused by several morbid conditions. Even in different immunological dysfunctions, physical exercise has been prescribed as a complementary therapeutic strategy. In fact, as suggested by our observations, there is a putative inverse relationship between autoimmunity markers (GAD, IA) and exercise-derived energy expenditure in type 1 pre-diabetic subjects. Exercise also has been shown to maintain muscle mitochondrial function and thus ability to maintain fuel metabolism and islet cell function. An additional benefit is the enhancement of antioxidant defense system and thus reducing oxidative stress. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to address the importance of physical exercise in a broad range of metabolic disorders that set out a common milieu in which type 1 and type 2 diabetes could be identified as one extensive syndrome.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3709-3722
Number of pages14
JournalEuropean Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Issue number19
Publication statusPublished - 2015


  • Adipokines
  • Autoimmunity
  • Cytokines
  • Diabetes
  • Exercise
  • Immunometabolism
  • Inflammation
  • Myokines

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)
  • Pharmacology (medical)


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