The anti-inflammatory properties of cocoa flavanols

Carlo Selmi, Tin K. Mao, Carl L. Keen, Harold H. Schmitz, M. Eric Gershwin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

79 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Signs of chronic or acute inflammation have been demonstrated in most cardiovascular diseases of multifactorial pathogenesis, including atherosclerosis and chronic heart failure. The triggers and mechanisms leading to inflammation may vary between clinical conditions but they share many common mediators, including specific patterns of eicosanoid and cytokine production. Certain cocoa-based products can be rich in a subclass of flavonoids known as flavanols, some of which have been found in model systems to possess potential anti-inflammatory activity relevant to cardiovascular health. Indeed, experimental evidence demonstrates that some cocoa-derived flavanols can reduce the production and effect of pro-inflammatory mediators either directly or by acting on signaling pathways. However, it should be noted that the evidence for any beneficial effects of cocoa flavanols in providing a meaningful anti-inflammatory action has been gathered predominantly from in vitro experiments. Therefore, additional research in well-designed human clinical experiments, using cocoa properly characterized in terms of flavanol content, would be a welcome addition to the evidence base to determine unambiguously if this benefit does indeed exist. If so, then flavanol-rich cocoa could be a potential candidate for the treatment, or possibly prevention, of the broad array of chronic diseases that are linked to dysfunctional inflammatory responses.

Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology
Volume47
Issue numberSUPPL. 2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2006

Fingerprint

Anti-Inflammatory Agents
Inflammation
Eicosanoids
Flavonoids
Atherosclerosis
Chronic Disease
Cardiovascular Diseases
Heart Failure
Cytokines
Health
Research
In Vitro Techniques

Keywords

  • Eicosanoids
  • Flavonoids
  • Inflammation
  • Nitric oxide
  • Procyanidis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmacology
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

Cite this

The anti-inflammatory properties of cocoa flavanols. / Selmi, Carlo; Mao, Tin K.; Keen, Carl L.; Schmitz, Harold H.; Eric Gershwin, M.

In: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology, Vol. 47, No. SUPPL. 2, 06.2006.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Selmi, Carlo ; Mao, Tin K. ; Keen, Carl L. ; Schmitz, Harold H. ; Eric Gershwin, M. / The anti-inflammatory properties of cocoa flavanols. In: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology. 2006 ; Vol. 47, No. SUPPL. 2.
@article{9129602f97d641859ce1bdcae0681ceb,
title = "The anti-inflammatory properties of cocoa flavanols",
abstract = "Signs of chronic or acute inflammation have been demonstrated in most cardiovascular diseases of multifactorial pathogenesis, including atherosclerosis and chronic heart failure. The triggers and mechanisms leading to inflammation may vary between clinical conditions but they share many common mediators, including specific patterns of eicosanoid and cytokine production. Certain cocoa-based products can be rich in a subclass of flavonoids known as flavanols, some of which have been found in model systems to possess potential anti-inflammatory activity relevant to cardiovascular health. Indeed, experimental evidence demonstrates that some cocoa-derived flavanols can reduce the production and effect of pro-inflammatory mediators either directly or by acting on signaling pathways. However, it should be noted that the evidence for any beneficial effects of cocoa flavanols in providing a meaningful anti-inflammatory action has been gathered predominantly from in vitro experiments. Therefore, additional research in well-designed human clinical experiments, using cocoa properly characterized in terms of flavanol content, would be a welcome addition to the evidence base to determine unambiguously if this benefit does indeed exist. If so, then flavanol-rich cocoa could be a potential candidate for the treatment, or possibly prevention, of the broad array of chronic diseases that are linked to dysfunctional inflammatory responses.",
keywords = "Eicosanoids, Flavonoids, Inflammation, Nitric oxide, Procyanidis",
author = "Carlo Selmi and Mao, {Tin K.} and Keen, {Carl L.} and Schmitz, {Harold H.} and {Eric Gershwin}, M.",
year = "2006",
month = "6",
doi = "10.1097/00005344-200606001-00010",
language = "English",
volume = "47",
journal = "Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology",
issn = "0160-2446",
publisher = "Lippincott Williams and Wilkins",
number = "SUPPL. 2",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - The anti-inflammatory properties of cocoa flavanols

AU - Selmi, Carlo

AU - Mao, Tin K.

AU - Keen, Carl L.

AU - Schmitz, Harold H.

AU - Eric Gershwin, M.

PY - 2006/6

Y1 - 2006/6

N2 - Signs of chronic or acute inflammation have been demonstrated in most cardiovascular diseases of multifactorial pathogenesis, including atherosclerosis and chronic heart failure. The triggers and mechanisms leading to inflammation may vary between clinical conditions but they share many common mediators, including specific patterns of eicosanoid and cytokine production. Certain cocoa-based products can be rich in a subclass of flavonoids known as flavanols, some of which have been found in model systems to possess potential anti-inflammatory activity relevant to cardiovascular health. Indeed, experimental evidence demonstrates that some cocoa-derived flavanols can reduce the production and effect of pro-inflammatory mediators either directly or by acting on signaling pathways. However, it should be noted that the evidence for any beneficial effects of cocoa flavanols in providing a meaningful anti-inflammatory action has been gathered predominantly from in vitro experiments. Therefore, additional research in well-designed human clinical experiments, using cocoa properly characterized in terms of flavanol content, would be a welcome addition to the evidence base to determine unambiguously if this benefit does indeed exist. If so, then flavanol-rich cocoa could be a potential candidate for the treatment, or possibly prevention, of the broad array of chronic diseases that are linked to dysfunctional inflammatory responses.

AB - Signs of chronic or acute inflammation have been demonstrated in most cardiovascular diseases of multifactorial pathogenesis, including atherosclerosis and chronic heart failure. The triggers and mechanisms leading to inflammation may vary between clinical conditions but they share many common mediators, including specific patterns of eicosanoid and cytokine production. Certain cocoa-based products can be rich in a subclass of flavonoids known as flavanols, some of which have been found in model systems to possess potential anti-inflammatory activity relevant to cardiovascular health. Indeed, experimental evidence demonstrates that some cocoa-derived flavanols can reduce the production and effect of pro-inflammatory mediators either directly or by acting on signaling pathways. However, it should be noted that the evidence for any beneficial effects of cocoa flavanols in providing a meaningful anti-inflammatory action has been gathered predominantly from in vitro experiments. Therefore, additional research in well-designed human clinical experiments, using cocoa properly characterized in terms of flavanol content, would be a welcome addition to the evidence base to determine unambiguously if this benefit does indeed exist. If so, then flavanol-rich cocoa could be a potential candidate for the treatment, or possibly prevention, of the broad array of chronic diseases that are linked to dysfunctional inflammatory responses.

KW - Eicosanoids

KW - Flavonoids

KW - Inflammation

KW - Nitric oxide

KW - Procyanidis

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=33750338756&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=33750338756&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1097/00005344-200606001-00010

DO - 10.1097/00005344-200606001-00010

M3 - Article

C2 - 16794453

AN - SCOPUS:33750338756

VL - 47

JO - Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology

JF - Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology

SN - 0160-2446

IS - SUPPL. 2

ER -