The association between burning mouth syndrome and sleep disturbance: A case–control multicentre study

D. Adamo, A. Sardella, E. Varoni, C. Lajolo, M. Biasotto, G. Ottaviani, P. Vescovi, T. Simonazzi, M. Pentenero, M. Ardore, F. Spadari, G. Bombeccari, L. Montebugnoli, D. B. Gissi, G. Campisi, V. Panzarella, M. Carbone, L. Valpreda, M. Giuliani, M. AriaL. Lo Muzio, M. D. Mignogna

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Objectives: To investigate the quality of sleep and the psychological profiles of a large cohort of Italian patients with burning mouth syndrome (BMS) and to clarify the relationships between these variables and pain. Methods: In this case–control study, 200 patients with BMS vs an equal number of age- and sex-matched healthy controls, recruited in 10 universities, were enrolled. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D), Hamilton Rating Scale for Anxiety (HAM-A), Numeric Pain Intensity Scale (NRS) and Total Pain Rating Index (T-PRI) were administered. Descriptive statistics, including the Mann–Whitney U test and hierarchical multiple linear regression analysis, were used. Results: Poor sleep quality (PSQI ≥ 5) was present in 78.8% (160) patients with BMS. BMS patients had statistically higher scores in all items of the PSQI and ESS than the healthy controls (p <.001). A depressed mood and anxiety correlated positively with sleep disturbance. The Pearson correlations were 0.570 for the PSQI vs HAM-D (p <.001) and 0.549 for the PSQI vs HAM-A (p <.001). Pain intensity (NRS) poorly correlated to sleep quality; the Pearson correlation was 0.162 for the PSQI vs NRS (p =.021). Conclusions: The BMS patients showed a poor sleep quality, anxiety and depression, as compared with the controls, highlighting the relationships between oral burning, sleep and mood.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)638-649
Number of pages12
JournalOral Diseases
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - May 1 2018


  • anxiety
  • burning
  • insomnia symptoms
  • mood disorders
  • pain
  • sleep

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Otorhinolaryngology
  • Dentistry(all)


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