Critical size segmental bone defects are still a major challenge in reconstructive orthopedic surgery. Transplantation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) has been proposed as an alternative to autogenous bone graft, as MSC can be expanded in vitro and induced to differentiate into bone-regenerating osteoblats by several bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP).The aim of this study was to investigate whether the association of hMSC and BMP-7, with providing the necessary scaffold to fill the bone loss, improved bone regeneration in a rat model of critical size segmental bone defect, compared to treatment with either hMSC or BMP-7 and the matrix. In addition, we tested whether pre-treatment of hMSC with cyclic ADP-ribose (cADPR), an intracellular Ca2+ mobilizer previously shown to accelerate the in vitro expansion of hMSC (Scarfì S et al, Stem Cells, 2008), affected the osteoinductive capacity of the cells in vivo.X-ray analysis, performed 2, 10 and 16. weeks after transplantation, revealed a significantly higher score in the rats treated with hMSC and BMP-7 compared to controls, receiving either hMSC or BMP-7. Microtomography and histological analysis, performed 16. weeks after transplantation, confirmed the improved bone regeneration in the animals treated with the association of hMSC and BMP-7 compared to controls. Pre-treatment with cADPR to stimulate hMSC proliferation in vitro did not affect the bone regenerating capacity of the cells in vivo.These results indicate that the association of in vitro expanded hMSC with BMP-7 provide a better osteoinductive graft compared to either hMSC or BMP-7 alone. Moreover, cADPR may be used to stimulate hMSC proliferation in vitro in order to reduce the time required to obtain a transplantable number of cells, with no adverse effect on the bone regenerating capacity of hMSC.
- Human MSC
- Osteogenic differentiation
- Rat model
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism