The basal to total insulin ratio in outpatients with diabetes on basal-bolus regimen

all on behalf of Associazione Medici Endocrinologi (AME)

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Objective: To evaluate the basal/total ratio of daily insulin dose (b/T) in outpatients with diabetes type 1 (DM1) and type 2 (DM2) on basal-bolus regimen, by investigating whether there is a relationship with HbA1c and episodes of hypoglycemia. Methods: Multicentric, observational, cross-sectional study in Italy. Adult DM1 (n = 476) and DM2 (n = 541) outpatients, with eGFR >30 mL/min/1.73 m2, on a basal-bolus regimen for at least six months, were recruited from 31 Italian Diabetes services between March and September 2016. Clinicaltrials.govID: NCT03489031. Results: Total daily insulin dose was significantly higher in DM2 patients (52.3 ± 22.5 vs. 46 ± 20.9 U/day), but this difference disappeared when insulin doses were normalized for body weight. The b/T ratio was lower than 0.50 in both groups: 0.46 ± 0.14 in DM1 and 0.43 ± 0.15 in DM2 patients (p = 0.0011). The b/T was significantly higher in the patients taking metformin in both groups, and significantly different according to the type of basal insulin (Degludec, 0.48 in DM1 and 0.44 in DM2; Glargine, 0.44 in DM1 and 0.43 in DM2; Detemir, 0.45 in DM1 and 0.39 in DM2). The b/T ratio was not correlated in either group to HbA1c or incidence of hypoglycemia (<40 mg/dL, or requiring caregiver intervention, in the last three months). In the multivariate analysis, metformin use and age were independent predictors of the b/T ratio in both DM1 and DM2 patients, while the type of basal insulin was an independent predictor only in DM1. Conclusion: The b/T ratio was independent of glycemic control and incidence of hypoglycemia.

Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of Diabetes and Metabolic Disorders
Publication statusAccepted/In press - Jan 1 2018


  • Basal bolus
  • Hypoglycemia
  • Insulin therapy
  • Type 1 diabetes
  • Type 2 diabetes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Internal Medicine
  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism


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