Gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists (GnRH) play an important role in the treatment of prostate cancer, improving significantly overall survival. GnRH agonists belong to androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) together with surgical castration and, recently, GnRH antagonists. ADT has several side effects, such as sexual dysfunction and osteoporosis. Recently, changes in body composition, obesity, insulin resistance, hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, and hypertension have emerged as complications of ADT, perhaps responsible for cardiovascular events, but discussion is still open. Since the majority of men with prostate cancer die of conditions other than their malignancy, recognition of these adverse effects is important. This review serves to focus attention on the pathogenetic mechanisms of ADT-related cardiovascular toxicity with also reference to the possible direct role of GnRH agonist on the cardiac receptors. Furthermore, this paper would generate recommendations for the management of patients treated with GnRH agonists balancing the potential benefits against the possible risks in prostate cancer men.
- Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT)
- Cardiovascular toxicity
- Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonists
- Prostate cancer
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Geriatrics and Gerontology