Dystonia is a heterogeneous disorder characterized by involuntary muscle contractions, twisting movements, and abnormal postures in various body regions. It is widely accepted that the basal ganglia are involved in the pathogenesis of dystonia. A growing body of evidence, however, is challenging the traditional view and suggest that the cerebellum may also play a role in dystonia. Studies on animals indicate that experimental manipulations of the cerebellum lead to dystonic-like movements. Several clinical observations, including those from secondary dystonia cases as well as neurophysiologic and neuroimaging studies in human patients, provide further evidence in humans of a possible relationship between cerebellar abnormalities and dystonia. Claryfing the role of the cerebellum in dystonia is an important step towards providing alternative treatments based on noninvasive brain stimulation techniques.