The Changing Clinical Spectrum of Hypophysitis

Sabrina Chiloiro, Ettore Domenico Capoluongo, Tommaso Tartaglione, Antonella Giampietro, Antonio Bianchi, Andrea Giustina, Alfredo Pontecorvi, Laura De Marinis

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Hypophysitis is a rare and potentially life-threatening disease, characterized by an elevated risk of complications, such as occurrence of acute central hypoadrenalism, persistent hypopituitarism, or extension of the inflammatory process to the neighboring neurological structures. In recent years, a large number of patients have been described as being affected by hypophysitis, due to the increased administration of immuno-chemotherapies. At the present time, the heterogeneous nature of hypophysitis diagnostic criteria and of the treatment protocols makes the management of affected patients difficult. We review the current data and evidence on primary and secondary hypophysitis, in order to suggest a diagnostic and therapeutic protocol that should be focused on a multidisciplinary approach, for reaching a prompt diagnosis and an appropriate and safe treatment.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)590-602
Number of pages13
JournalTrends in Endocrinology and Metabolism
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - Sep 2019


  • autoimmune
  • diabetes insipidus
  • hypopituitarism
  • immunotherapy
  • ipilimumab
  • pituitary

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Endocrinology


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