The changing face of immune tolerance induction in haemophilia A with the advent of emicizumab

Future of Immunotolerance Treatment Group

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Introduction: As a result of the new treatment paradigm that the haemophilia community will face with the availability of novel (non-factor) therapies, an updated consensus on ITI recommendations and inhibitor management strategies is needed. Aim: The Future of Immunotolerance Treatment (FIT) group was established to contemplate, determine and recommend the best management options for patients with haemophilia A and inhibitors. Discussion and Conclusions: Despite the considerable success of emicizumab in the management of inhibitor patients, the FIT group still sees the importance of eradicating inhibitors. However, the availability of emicizumab and other non-factor therapies in the future might impact greatly on how ITI is undertaken. Theoretically, concomitant use of emicizumab and FVIII might allow emicizumab to effectively prevent bleeding with lower dose ITI regimens. This might allow for the greater adoption of low-dose/low-frequency FVIII ITI regimens, which may result in a reduced need for central venous access devices while still maintaining a reasonable likelihood of ITI success. The FIT group proposes a new management algorithm for current ITI (without emicizumab) and a hypothetical new approach with the availability of emicizumab. As there are no published data regarding the concomitant use of emicizumab and FVIII for ITI, the FIT Expert group encourages the undertaking of properly conducted prospective studies to explore these approaches further.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)676-684
Number of pages9
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Jul 1 2019


  • bypassing agents
  • emicizumab
  • factor VIII
  • haemophilia A
  • immune tolerance induction
  • inhibitor

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Hematology
  • Genetics(clinical)


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