Hematopoietic progenitor cells migrate in vitro and in vivo towards a gradient of the chemotactic factor stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) produced by stromal cells. This is the first chemoattractant reported for human CD34+ progenitor cells. Concentrations of SDF-1 that elicit chemotaxis also induce a transient elevation of cytoplasmic calcium in CD34+ cells. SDF-1-induced chemotaxis is inhibited by pertussis toxin, suggesting that its signaling CD34+ cells is mediated by seven transmembrane receptors coupled to G1 proteins. CD34+ cells migrating of SDF-1 include cells with a more primitive (CD34+/CD38- or CD34+/DR-) phenotype as well as CD34+ cells phenotypically committed to the erythroid, lymphoid and myeloid lineages, including functional BFU-E, CFU-GM, and CFU- MIX progenitors. Chemotaxis of CD34+ cells in response to SDF-1 is increased by IL-3 in vitro and is lower in CD34+ progenitors from peripheral blood than in CD34+ progenitors from bone marrow, suggesting that an altered response to SDF-1 may be associated with CD34 progenitor mobilization.
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