Cerebellar hemorrhage (CBH) is a frequent complication of preterm birth and may play an important and under-recognized role in neurodevelopment outcome. Association between CBH size, location, and neurodevelopment is still unknown. The main objective of this study was to investigate neurodevelopmental outcome at 2 years of age in a large number of infants with different patterns of CBH. Of preterm infants (≤ 34 weeks) with known CBH, perinatal factors, neuro-imaging findings, and follow-up at 2 years of age were retrospectively collected. MRI scans were reassessed to determine the exact size, number, and location of CBH. CBH was divided into three groups: punctate (≤ 4 mm), limited (> 4 mm but < 1/3 of the cerebellar hemisphere), or massive (≥ 1/3 of the cerebellar hemisphere). Associations between pattern of CBH, perinatal factors, and (composite) neurodevelopmental outcome were assessed. Data of 218 preterm infants with CBH were analyzed. Of 177 infants, the composite outcome score could be obtained. Forty-eight out of 119 infants (40%) with punctate CBH, 18 out of 35 infants (51%) with limited CBH, and 18 out of 23 infants (78%) with massive CBH had an abnormal composite outcome score. No significant differences were found for the composite outcome between punctate and limited CBH (P = 0.42). The risk of an abnormal outcome increased with increasing size of CBH. Infants with limited CBH have a more favorable outcome than infants with massive CBH. It is therefore important to distinguish between limited and massive CBH.