The clinical Biofilm Ring Test: a promising tool for the clinical assessment of biofilm-producing Candida species

Enea Gino Di Domenico, Ilaria Cavallo, Maria Guembe, Grazia Prignano, Maria Teresa Gallo, Valentina Bordignon, Giovanna D'Agosto, Isabella Sperduti, Luigi Toma, Fabrizio Ensoli

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Candida species are opportunistic pathogens responsible for a variety of diseases, ranging from skin and mucosal lesions to severe systemic, life-threatening infections. Candida albicans accounts for more than 70% of all Candida infections, however, the clinical relevance of other species such as Candida parapsilosis and Candida krusei are being increasingly recognized. Biofilm-producing yeasts cells acquire an increased resistance to antifungal agents, often leading to therapeutic failure and chronic infection. Conventional methods such as crystal violet (CV) and tetrazolium (XTT) reduction assay, developed to evaluate biofilm formation in Candida species are usually time-consuming, present a high intra- and inter-assay variability of the results and are therefore hardly applicable to routine diagnostics. This study describes an in-vitro assay developed for the measurement of biofilm formation in Candida species based on the clinical Biofilm Ring Test® (cBRT). We found a significant concordance between the cBRT and both CV (k = 0.74) and XTT (k = 0.62), respectively. Nevertheless, the cBRT resulted more reliable and reproducible than CV and XTT, requiring a minimal sample manipulation and allowing a high throughput assessment, directly on viable cells. The results indicate that the cBRT may provide a suitable, cost-effective technique for routine biofilm testing in clinical microbiology.

Original languageEnglish
Number of pages8
JournalFEMS Yeast Research
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - May 1 2018


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