The combination of depressive symptoms and smoking shorten life expectancy among the aged

Cristina Fortes, Simona Mastroeni, Sperati Alessandra, Juliana Lindau, Sara Farchi, Francesco Franco, Roberta Pacifici, Piergiorgio Zuccaro, Eva Mazzotti, Paolo Pasquini, Piero Borgia

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

4 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: Depression is a potential risk factor for mortality among the aged and it is also associated with other chronic diseases and unhealthy lifestyles that may also affect mortality. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between depressive symptoms and mortality, controlling for health, nutritional status, and life-style factors. Methods: A cohort of elderly people (N = 167) was followed-up for ten years. Information on socio-demographic characteristics, medical history, smoking, and alcohol consumption was collected. The primary outcome was all-cause mortality; the secondary outcome was cancer-specific mortality. The Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15) was used to assess depression. Using a multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression, we examined the association between depressive symptoms and mortality. Results: Elderly people with depression (scoring above the depression cut-off of 7) had a 53% increased risk of mortality (relative risk (RR) 1.53; 95%CI: 1.05-2.24) compared to non-depressed subjects. The combination of depressive symptoms with smoking was associated with a particularly higher risk of mortality (RR: 2.61; 95%CI: 1.28-5.31), after controlling for potential confounders. Conclusions: Depressive symptoms are associated with a significantly increased risk of all-cause mortality. The combination of depressive symptoms and smoking shorten life expectancy among the aged.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)624-630
Number of pages7
JournalInternational Psychogeriatrics
Volume24
Issue number4
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2012

Fingerprint

Life Expectancy
Smoking
Depression
Mortality
Life Style
Nutritional Status
Alcohol Drinking
Geriatrics
Health Status
Chronic Disease
Demography

Keywords

  • depression
  • elderly
  • mortality
  • smoking

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Geriatrics and Gerontology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health
  • Gerontology
  • Clinical Psychology

Cite this

The combination of depressive symptoms and smoking shorten life expectancy among the aged. / Fortes, Cristina; Mastroeni, Simona; Alessandra, Sperati; Lindau, Juliana; Farchi, Sara; Franco, Francesco; Pacifici, Roberta; Zuccaro, Piergiorgio; Mazzotti, Eva; Pasquini, Paolo; Borgia, Piero.

In: International Psychogeriatrics, Vol. 24, No. 4, 04.2012, p. 624-630.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Fortes, C, Mastroeni, S, Alessandra, S, Lindau, J, Farchi, S, Franco, F, Pacifici, R, Zuccaro, P, Mazzotti, E, Pasquini, P & Borgia, P 2012, 'The combination of depressive symptoms and smoking shorten life expectancy among the aged', International Psychogeriatrics, vol. 24, no. 4, pp. 624-630. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1041610211002201
Fortes, Cristina ; Mastroeni, Simona ; Alessandra, Sperati ; Lindau, Juliana ; Farchi, Sara ; Franco, Francesco ; Pacifici, Roberta ; Zuccaro, Piergiorgio ; Mazzotti, Eva ; Pasquini, Paolo ; Borgia, Piero. / The combination of depressive symptoms and smoking shorten life expectancy among the aged. In: International Psychogeriatrics. 2012 ; Vol. 24, No. 4. pp. 624-630.
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