The combined effect of age, education, and stroke on dementia and cognitive impairment no dementia in the elderly

Diana De Ronchi, Katie Palmer, Philippe Pioggiosi, Anna Rita Atti, Domenico Berardi, Barbara Ferrari, Edoardo Dalmonte, Laura Fratiglioni

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: This study aims to detect the impact of stroke on the occurrence of dementia and cognitive impairment/no dementia (CIND) in different age, sex, and education groups. Methods: Persons with dementia (DSM-III-R) or CIND were identified by a two-phase study design among 7,930 persons from the population-based Faenza Community Aging Study. Results: Subjects with a history of stroke had increased risk of both dementia [risk ratio (RR) = 3.7; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 3.1-4.4] and CIND (RR = 1.7, 95% CI = 1.4-2.2). These associations were stronger in the younger-old (61-74 years) than in the older-old (75+ years), and among higher-educated (4+ years) than lower-educated (0-3 years of schooling) persons. Dementia and CIND prevalence among stroke subjects was similar to the prevalence detected among subjects 10 years older but without a history of stroke. In stroke subjects, dementia prevalence became higher than CIND prevalence 10 years earlier than in non-stroke subjects. A combined effect for dementia due to a history of stroke, increasing age, and decreasing years of schooling was detected. Conclusions: Stroke is a strong risk factor for dementia among younger-old and higher-educated subjects; in the presence of a stroke, dementia onset might occur about 10 years earlier, possibly by accelerating the progression from CIND to dementia.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)266-273
Number of pages8
JournalDementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Sep 2007


  • CIND
  • Cognitive impairment no dementia
  • Education
  • MCI
  • Mild cognitive impairment
  • Population-based study
  • Stroke

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neuropsychology and Physiological Psychology
  • Geriatrics and Gerontology


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