Comet assay is a quick and versatile method for assessing DNA damage in individual cells. It allows the detection of single and double DNA strand breaks, as well as the presence of alkali labile sites. DNA breaks may represent the direct effect of some damaging agent, or they may be intermediates in cellular repair. DNA strand breaks may also come from the action of free radicals generated by oxidative stress processes. The present article summarizes some data from our and other groups underlining the suitability of the Comet assay in assessing neurotoxicity and its potential in evaluating drugs of abuse-related genotoxicity.