The arrival of infected travelers from endemic regions can trigger sustained autochthonous transmission of mosquito-borne pathogens in Europe. In 2007 a Chikungunya outbreak was observed in central Italy, mostly affecting two villages characterised by a high density of Aedes albopictus. The outbreak was mitigated through intervention strategies reducing the mosquito abundance. Ten years later, in 2017, sustained Chikungunya transmission was documented in both central and southern Italy. The proposed analysis identifies suitable reactive measures for the containment and mitigation of future epidemics by combining epidemiological modeling with a health economic approach, considering different arrival times of imported infections and possible delays in the notification of cases. Obtained estimates suggest that, if the first notification will occur in the middle of the mosquito breeding season, the combination of larvicides, adulticides and breeding sites removal represents the optimal strategy. In particular, we found that interventions implemented in 2007 were cost-effective, with about 3200 prevented cases, 1450 DALYs averted and €13.5 M saved. Moreover, larvicides are proven to be more cost beneficial in early summer and warmer seasons, while adulticides should be preferred in autumn and colder seasons. Our results provide useful indications supporting urgent decision-making of public health authorities in response to emerging mosquito-borne epidemics.
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