The delineation of the Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome over six decades: Illustration of the ongoing advances in phenotype analysis and cytogenomic technology

Agatino Battaglia, John C. Carey

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

Abstract

Since Hirschhorn's description in 1961, the history and chronology of the clinical, cytogenetic, and molecular characterization of Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome (WHS) elegantly demonstrates the remarkable advances in genetic technology over the last six decades that have paralleled the delineation of the phenotype. After mention in the Human Chromosome Newsletter of a child with a visible deletion of the top of a B chromosome group, 4–5, Hirschhorn and colleagues companioned their report with that of Wolf et al. in Humangenetik in 1965, and the condition was recognized and named. The 1960–1970s witnessed the description of many of the now classic chromosome disorders, including WHS, while HRB allowed for the recognition of chromosome syndromes with smaller deletions/duplications. FISH probes, developed in the next two decades, enabled the characterization of the critical region of WHS and improved clinical diagnosis with subtelomeric probes. Cytogenomic microarray in the early-mid 2000s led to both improved diagnosis of WHS patients and documentation of microdeletions of <5 megabases, helping to characterize the critical regions for specific component phenotypes (e.g., seizures, face). Recently exome sequencing technology has led to the discovery of WHS patients with WHSC1 loss of function variants, displaying some cardinal features of the phenotype (face, growth, and developmental delay).

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2748-2755
Number of pages8
JournalAmerican Journal of Medical Genetics, Part A
Volume185
Issue number9
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Sep 2021

Keywords

  • 4p-syndrome
  • advances in Cytogenomic technology
  • deletion 4p
  • monosomy 4p
  • Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Genetics
  • Genetics(clinical)

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