The development of episodic future thinking in middle childhood

F. Ferretti, A. Chiera, S. Nicchiarelli, I. Adornetti, R. Magni, S. Vicari, G. Valeri, A. Marini

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The ability to imagine future events (episodic future thinking—EFT) emerges in preschoolers and further improves during middle childhood and adolescence. In the present study, we focused on the possible cognitive factors that affect EFT and its development. We assessed the ability to mentally project forward in time of a large cohort of 135 6- to 11-year-old children through a task with minimal narrative demands (the Picture Book Trip task adapted from Atance and Meltzoff in Cogn Dev 20(3):341–361. doi:10.1016/j.cogdev.2005.05.001, 2005) in order to avoid potential linguistic effects on children’s performance. The results showed that this task can be used to assess the development of EFT at least until the age of 8. Furthermore, EFT scores correlated with measures of phonological short-term and verbal working memory. These results support the possibility that cognitive factors such as working memory play a key role in EFT.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-8
Number of pages8
JournalCognitive Processing
Publication statusAccepted/In press - Oct 20 2017


  • Cognitive development
  • Episodic future thinking
  • Mental time travel
  • Working memory

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Experimental and Cognitive Psychology
  • Cognitive Neuroscience
  • Artificial Intelligence


Dive into the research topics of 'The development of episodic future thinking in middle childhood'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this