The effect of occasional smoking on smoking-related cancers: In the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)

Bine Kjøller Bjerregaard, Ole Raaschou-Nielsen, Mette Sørensen, Kirsten Frederiksen, Anne Tjønneland, Sabine Rohrmann, Jakob Linseisen, Manuela M. Bergman, Heiner Boeing, Sabina Sieri, Domenico Palli, Rosario Tumino, Carlotta Sacerdote, H. Bas Bueno-De-Mesquita, Frederike L. Büchner, Inger Torhild Gram, Tonje Braaten, Eiliv Lund, Göran Hallmans, Åsa ÅgrenElio Riboli

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Objective: Most studies on tobacco smoking have focused on daily-smokers. Occasional smokers, who have never smoked daily, have often been included in the reference group of never-smokers. We have investigated the association between occasional smoking and cancer of the bladder, kidney, pancreas, upper aero-digestive tract and lung. Methods: The study population consisted of 158,488 persons, who provided information on occasional smoking, within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), 780 of whom developed a smoking-related cancer. We used Cox proportional hazard model, stratified by gender and country to estimate incidence rate ratios (IRR) for smoking-related cancers. Results: The results suggest that occasional smokers have a higher risk of bladder cancer (IRR: 1.92, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.93-3.98) and of the major smoking-related cancers combined (IRR: 1.24, 95% CI 0.80-1.94) than true never-smokers. Including occasional smokers in the reference group resulted in a lower risk estimate for former and current smokers. Conclusions: Occasional smoking should be discouraged.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1305-1309
Number of pages5
JournalCancer Causes and Control
Volume17
Issue number10
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2006

Keywords

  • Cancer
  • Cohort Study
  • Epidemiology
  • Tobacco smoke

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Epidemiology
  • Cancer Research

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    Bjerregaard, B. K., Raaschou-Nielsen, O., Sørensen, M., Frederiksen, K., Tjønneland, A., Rohrmann, S., Linseisen, J., Bergman, M. M., Boeing, H., Sieri, S., Palli, D., Tumino, R., Sacerdote, C., Bueno-De-Mesquita, H. B., Büchner, F. L., Gram, I. T., Braaten, T., Lund, E., Hallmans, G., ... Riboli, E. (2006). The effect of occasional smoking on smoking-related cancers: In the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Cancer Causes and Control, 17(10), 1305-1309. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10552-006-0068-9