The effectiveness of a cognitive behavioral exercise approach (CBEA) compared to usual care in patients with a Whiplash Associated Disorder: A quasi-experimental clinical trial

Jorge Hugo Villafañe, Davide Perucchini, Joshua A. Cleland, Cristina Barbieri, Fernanda De Lima E Sá Resende, Stefano Negrini

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Whiplash Associated Disorders (WAD) is a biopsychosocial problem, education may be an essential part in the treatment and the prevention of chronic WAD. However, it is still unclear which type of educative intervention has already been used in WAD patients and how effective such interventions are. OBJECTIVE: To examine the effectiveness of a cognitive behavioral exercises approach (CBEA) for self-training of the neck relative to usual care in individuals with WAD in acute phase. METHODS: Forty-one patients, 65.9% female (mean ± SD age: 41 ±11 years), with WAD were recruited immediately after the accident (within 48 hours) and assigned according to patient choice to receive a CBEA self-training of the neck or usual care for 15 days. The primary outcome measure was pain intensity and disability as measured with the Neck Disability Index (NDI). Secondary outcome measures included the presence of headaches, dizziness, nausea, and difficulties with concentration and memory. Measurements were taken at pre-treatment, 2 weeks post-treatment and 4- and 12- weeks after the injury. RESULTS: Patients receiving the CBEA intervention experienced a greater reduction in pain as compared to those receiving the usual care at the end as well as 4 and 12 weeks after the intervention (P< 0.001), for the Neck Disability Index (NDI) decreased more in the CBEA than controls over the 15 days and (F=[3.0] 552.383; P= 0.001), and in both groups at all follow-up periods (all, P= 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: This quasi-experimental clinical trial provides evidence that a CBEA for self-training of the neck may be more beneficial in treating pain than usual care in patients with WAD. However, the CBEA had limited value in improving NDI. Future studies should include several therapists, a measure of a long-term outcomes and randomize patients to groups.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)943-950
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Back and Musculoskeletal Rehabilitation
Volume30
Issue number5
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2017

Keywords

  • cognitive-behavioural exercises
  • neck
  • Whiplash

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine
  • Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation
  • Rehabilitation

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