Frequent consumption of fresh fruit and vegetables, and polymorphisms in the detoxifying enzyme glutathione S-transferase M1 (GSTM1) and other metabolic genes have been shown to modulate cancer risk at some sites. We have shown recently that DNA adducts, a reliable indicator of genotoxic damage and, possibly, of cancer risk, are modulated by plasma levels of selected micronutrients. Here we further investigate the association between DNA adduct levels and consumption of major food groups and foods, and the estimated dietary intake of nutrients, taking into account the possible modifying effect of metabolic polymorphisms, in a larger sample of 634 healthy adults enrolled in a prospective study in Italy. DNA adducts and five polymorphic metabolic genotypes (GSTM1, GSTT1, NAT2, CYP1A1 and MTHFR) were determined in peripheral leukocytes by using 32P-postlabeling technique and PCR methods. DNA bulky adducts (mean: 7.82 ± 0.40/109 nt) were detected in 482/634 samples (76.0%). Overall, DNA adduct levels were significantly and inversely associated with the intake of raw leafy vegetables (P = 0.02), non-citrus fruits (P = 0.04), potassium (P = 0.01 and β-carotene (P = 0.05). No association was evident with the five genotypes. Stratification by GSTM1 genotype showed strong inverse associations of DNA adduct levels with increasing consumption of all vegetables combined (P = 0.04), leafy vegetables (P = 0.004), raw leafy vegetables (P = 0.002) and fish (P = 0.03) among 307 GSTM1-null subjects; strong inverse associations also emerged with estimated dietary intakes of β-carotene (P = 0.004), vitamin E (P = 0.004), niacin (P = 0.02) and potassium (P = 0.01). In contrast, no association emerged among 295 subjects with a GSTM1-wild genotype. Overall, statistically significant interactions in predicting DNA adduct levels were observed between the GSTM1-null genotype and consumption of leafy vegetables (P = 0.01), white meat (P = 0.04), and intake of vitamin C (P = 0.04), vitamin E (P = 0.05) and β-carotene (P = 0.02). Our results suggest that the role of a diet rich in antioxidants in preventing or reducing DNA adduct formation is restricted to subjects lacking the detoxifying activity of GSTM1 isoenzyme (∼50% of the general population).
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research