Purpose: This study retrospectively evaluated the efficacy and safety of the 6F Angio-Seal (St. Jude Medical, St. Paul, Minn) as a closure device for transbrachial artery access for endovascular procedures in diabetic patients with critical limb ischemia. Methods: From January 2005 and September 2007, 1887 diabetic patients underwent interventional procedures in the lower limbs at a two diabetic foot centers. Patients presented with rest pain (16%), ulcers (80%), or gangrene (4%). Systemic anticoagulation with sodium heparin (70 IU/kg) was obtained for all patients at the beginning of the endovascular treatment. A total of 249 brachial arteries (238 patients) were evaluated for possible Angio-Seal use after endovascular recanalization of the leg. Color Doppler ultrasound imaging of the artery was obtained before revascularization only in patients with previous Angio-Seal placement in the brachial artery. No further imaging studies were done in the remaining brachial arteries where the Angio-Seal was deployed at the operator's discretion. Impairment or disappearance of the radial pulse or onsets of hand ischemia or hand pain, or impairment of hand function during or at the end of the endovascular revascularization were all regarded as contraindications to Angio-Seal usage. Evidence of a highly calcified plaque of the brachial artery access site at the time of vessel puncture was regarded as an absolute contraindication to the Angio-Seal use. Patients were seen before discharge, at 1, 3, and 8 weeks after the procedure, and at 3-month intervals thereafter. Complications included hemorrhage, pseudoaneurysm, infection, and vessel occlusion. Results: A total of 1947 Angio-Seal collagen plugs were deployed in 1709 diabetic patients (90.5%). The Angio-Seal was used for brachial artery closure in 159 patients (8.4%) in 161 procedures (159 in the left, 2 in the right brachial artery). In 79 patients (4.2%) in 88 procedures (87 in the left and 1 in the right brachial artery), the device was deemed contraindicated due to small vessel size in 73 patients (92.4%) or presence of calcium at the access site in five patients (6.3%). One patient (1.3%) refused the collagen plug closure after revascularization. The non-Angio-Seal group was evaluated for comparison. The success rate for achieving hemostasis in the Angio-Seal group was 96.9%. Five major complications (3.1%) at 30 days consisted of two puncture site hematomas >4 cm, two brachial artery occlusions, and one brachial artery pseudoaneurysm, with three patients requiring open surgery. Minor complications (7.50%) were three puncture site hematomas <4 cm, three oozing of blood from the access site, and six patients had mild pain in the cubital fossa. No further complications were recorded in the 14-month follow-up (range 1-25 months) of a total of 140 patients. Conclusions: This retrospective study shows that the 6F Angio-Seal is a valuable and safe vascular closure device for transbrachial access in diabetic patients undergoing interventional procedures for critical limb ischemia.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine