Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) are common in all age groups and both sexes, resulting in tremendous personal suffering and a substantial burden to society. Antimuscarinic drugs are the mainstay of symptom management in patients with LUTS, although their clinical utility is limited by the high prevalence of adverse effects, which often limit patients' long-term adherence to these agents. Data from controversial studies in the 1990s revealed the positive effects of marijuana-based compounds on LUTS, and sparked an interest in the possibility of treating bladder disorders with cannabis. Increased understanding of cannabinoid receptor pharmacology and the discovery of endogenous ligands of these receptors has prompted debate and further research into the clinical utility of exogenous cannabinoid receptor agonists relative to the unwanted psychotropic effects of these agents. Currently, the endocannabinoid system is considered as a potential drug target for pharmacological management of LUTS, with a more favourable adverse event profile than antimuscarinic agents.
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