The European DTI Study on Dementia (EDSD) is a multicenter framework created to study the diagnostic accuracy and inter-site variability of DTI-derived markers in patients with manifest and prodromal Alzheimer's disease (AD). The dynamically growing database presently includes 493 DTI, 512 T1-weighted MRI, and 300 FLAIR scans from patients with AD dementia, patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) and matched Healthy Controls, acquired on 13 different scanner platforms. The imaging data is publicly available, along with the subjects' demographic and clinical characterization. Detailed neuropsychological information, cerebrospinal fluid information on biomarkers and clinical follow-up diagnoses are included for a subset of subjects. This paper describes the rationale and structure of the EDSD, summarizes the available data, and explains how to gain access to the database. The EDSD is a useful database for researchers seeking to investigate the contribution of DTI to dementia diagnostics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.