The Gynogram: A Multicentric Validation of a New Psychometric Tool to Assess Coital Pain Associated With VVA and Its Impact on Sexual Quality of Life in Menopausal Women

Gynogram Study Group

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Background: Vulvo-Vaginal Atrophy (VVA) affects about fifty percent of postmenopausal women, contributing more vulnerable sexual and psycho-relational equilibrium. To date, no psychometric instruments have been designed to assess the impact of coital pain associated with VVA on sexual quality of life. Aim: To validate a new psychometric tool, the Gynogram, able to investigate coital pain and to quantify its impact on sexual well-being in menopause. Methods: 214 sexually active postmenopausal women were enrolled in the study during clinical consultations in gynecological outpatient clinics in Italy. After gynecological examination and evaluation of the presence of VVA, the study sample was divided in a clinical group (103 women with certified diagnosis of VVA) and in a control group (111 women without certified diagnosis of VVA) according to the Vaginal Health Index (VHI) cut-off. Factor, Reliability and Receiving Operating Characteristics (ROC) analysis were performed in order to validate our newly created Gynogram. Outcomes: A structured questionnaire, named Gynogram, to assess coital pain and its impact, and the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI). Results: The factor analysis performed on the original form (80 items) reduced the Gynogram to 24 items. Reliability analysis conducted with Cronbach's Alpha coefficients showed high values in all the components (ranging from.813 to.972), both in the long and in the short form. The sensitivity analysis demonstrated that the Gynogram, with a cut-off ≤93, is able to recognize a clinically significant coital pain. With respect to the FSFI, statistically significant differences were found for all the domains. In addition, statistically significant differences were found for all the twelve factors of the Gynogram, showing that VVA profoundly affects the sexual quality of life of women in post-menopause. Clinical Translation: The utility of this tool consists in the possibility to improve prognosis, compliance/adherence and treatment outcomes. Strengths and Limitations: The Gynogram is able to evaluate and to quantify the impact of coital pain associated with VVA. Moreover, it can also recognize the areas of biopsychosocial functioning being more affected by this clinical condition. The main limit of the study is the impossibility to evaluate both mental health and partner's general and sexual health. Conclusions: The Gynogram is a new and validated psychometric tool able to detect the impact of symptomatic VVA on sexual quality of life among post-menopausal women, with a specific focus on the different areas of sexual functioning. Nappi RE, Graziottin A, Mollaioli A, et al. The Gynogram: A Multicentric Validation of a New Psychometric Tool to Assess Coital Pain Associated With VVA and Its Impact on Sexual Quality of Life in Menopausal Women. J Sex Med 2021;18:955–965.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)955-965
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Sexual Medicine
Volume18
Issue number5
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - May 2021

Keywords

  • Coital Pain
  • Menopause
  • Sexual Health
  • Sexual Quality of Life
  • Vulvo-Vaginal Atrophy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Reproductive Medicine
  • Endocrinology
  • Obstetrics and Gynaecology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health
  • Urology

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