The heterogeneity of cancer endothelium: The relevance of angiogenesis and endothelial progenitor cells in cancer microenvironment

Giovanna Armani, Emma Pozzi, Anna Pagani, Camillo Porta, Mimma Rizzo, Daniela Cicognini, Bianca Rovati, Francesco Moccia, Paolo Pedrazzoli, Elisa Ferraris

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

Abstract

Tumor-associated vessels constitution is the result of angiogenesis, the hallmark of cancer essential for tumor to develop in dimension and to spread throughout the organism. Tumor endothelium is configured as an active functioning organ capable of determine interaction with the immune response and all the other components of the variegate cancer microenvironment, determining reciprocal influence. Angiogenesis is here analyzed in its molecular and cellular mechanisms, multiple mediators and principal players, represented by Endothelial Cells. It is discussed the striking heterogeneity of cancer endothelium, due to morphological and molecular aberrations that it often presents and its multiple origin. Among the cells that participate to the composition of tumor vasculature, Endothelial Progenitor Cells represent an important source for physical sustain and paracrine signaling in the process of angiogenesis. Treatment options are reviewed, with particular focus on novel therapeutic strategies for overcoming tumor resistance to anti-angiogenic agents.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)104189
Number of pages9
JournalMicrovascular Research
Volume138
DOIs
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - May 29 2021

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