Viral infection may induce the cell-surface expression of PVR (CD155) that, upon recognition by its cognate activating DNAM-1 receptor present on cytotoxic lymphocytes, may promote antiviral immune responses. Here we show that expression of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Vpr protein in Jurkat T cells increases cell-surface and total PVR levels. Analysis of mutated Vpr variants indicated that Vpr uses the same protein surfaces, and hence probably the same mechanisms, to upregulate PVR and arrest the cell cycle in the G2 phase. Moreover, we found that PVR upregulation by Vpr relied on the ability of the protein to activate the ATR kinase that triggers the DNA damage response pathway and G2 arrest. Finally, we showed that Vpr contributes to PVR up-modulation in HIV-infected CD4+ T lymphocytes and inhibits the PVR downregulating activity of the viral Nef protein.
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