Heart Failure (HF) is a major healthcare issue, given its high prevalence and incidence, the rate of comorbidities, the related high healthcare costs and its poor outcome. In the last years mounting evidence revealed several differences between men and women affected by this clinical condition. Apart from the well-known difference in phenotype (HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) occurs more commonly in men, and HF with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is more frequent in women) other relevant sex-related issues dwell upon epidemiology, presentation, risk stratification and management. These differences shed new lights on the possibility to consider HF as a prototype of the impact of gender/sex issue in cardiovascular medicine. A call for action and future strategies might help in the achievement of a cleaver patient- care.
- Heart Failure
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine