The Impact of Kidney Development on the Life Course: A Consensus Document for Action

Barry M. Brenner, Jennifer Charlton, Valerie Luyckx, Dario Manfellotto, Norberto Perico, Giuseppe Remuzzi, Marco Somaschini, Herbert Valensise, Dwomoa Adu, Karel Allegaert, Chiara Benedetto, Irene Cetin, Robert Chevalier, Monica Cortinovis, Rosario D'Anna, Johannes Duvekot, Joaquin Escribano, Vassilios Fanos, Enrico Ferrazzi, Tiziana FruscaRichard J. Glassock, Wilfried Gyselaers, Federico Mecacci, Giovanni Montini, Clive Osmond, Luca Ramenghi, Paola Romagnani, Antonio Santoro, Umberto Simeoni, Eric A.P. Steegers, Bjorn Egil Vikse, The Low Birth Weight and Nephron Number Working Group

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Hypertension and chronic kidney disease (CKD) have a significant impact on global morbidity and mortality. The Low Birth Weight and Nephron Number Working Group has prepared a consensus document aimed to address the relatively neglected issue for the developmental programming of hypertension and CKD. It emerged from a workshop held on April 2, 2016, including eminent internationally recognized experts in the field of obstetrics, neonatology, and nephrology. Through multidisciplinary engagement, the goal of the workshop was to highlight the association between fetal and childhood development and an increased risk of adult diseases, focusing on hypertension and CKD, and to suggest possible practical solutions for the future. The recommendations for action of the consensus workshop are the results of combined clinical experience, shared research expertise, and a review of the literature. They highlight the need to act early to prevent CKD and other related noncommunicable diseases later in life by reducing low birth weight, small for gestational age, prematurity, and low nephron numbers at birth through coordinated interventions. Meeting the current unmet needs would help to define the most cost-effective strategies and to optimize interventions to limit or interrupt the developmental programming cycle of CKD later in life, especially in the poorest part of the world.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3-49
Number of pages47
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Apr 1 2017


  • Infant and child nutrition
  • Intrauterine growth restriction
  • Low birth weight
  • Maternal nutrition
  • Neonatal acute kidney injury
  • Nephron number
  • Preterm birth
  • Programmed risk of hypertension
  • Programmed risk of kidney disease
  • Small for gestational age

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physiology
  • Nephrology
  • Urology
  • Physiology (medical)


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