Abstract Pain is associated with the different types of rheumatic syndromes because it is often the most troubling symptom of patients affected by any of these diseases. Some risk factors clearly play a major role in the clinical expression of pain and related syndromes, including genetics, age, gender, co-morbidities, traumas and psychological patterns, but there are no specific clinical, laboratory or neuroimaging markers that can indicate why and when a patient's localised pain will become chronic and widespread. Any type of pain must be treated not only appropriately, but also rapidly because the likelihood of developing some form of chronic pain is related to the duration of the peripheral pain stimulus. Chronic pain inevitably has a major impact on patients' quality of life because the loss of function undermines their ability to do everyday activities. Pain can be most effectively treated by carefully selecting various pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions based on the characteristics of the pain itself, disease factors, psychological coping abilities, and lifestyle.
- Chronic pain
- Pharmacological and non-pharmacological therapy
- Systemic rheumatic diseases
ASJC Scopus subject areas