The impact of smoking and other vascular risk factors on penile hemodynamics

F. Montorsi, L. Galli, L. Ferini Strambi, G. Guazzoni, F. Trimboli, L. Da Pozzo, R. Colombo, P. Rigatti, G. Pizzini, A. Miani

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


This study was aimed at assessing the impact of smoking, arterial hypertension, diabetes and hypercholesterolemia on penile hemodynamics as evaluated by color Doppler sonography. 276 impotent patients were studied consecutively by color Doppler sonography of the penile vessels before and after injection of a four drug vasoactive mixture. Patients were diagnosed as nonvasculogenic according to standardized Doppler parameters. Multiple logistic analysis was performed to estimate the independent contribution of the risk factors on Doppler parameters and the corresponding odds ratio calculatcd as exp (beta). Smoking was found in 193 patients (70%), hypercholesterolemia in 58 patients (21%), hypertension in 35 patients (13%) and diabetes in 30 patients (11%). Fifty-two patients (19%) did not show any vascular risk factor and were considered as controls. The incidence of vasculogenic impotence in patients with or without vascular risk factors was statistically different (chi-square = 42.2, p = 0.01). Patients positive for smoking + hypertension showed the highest rate of vasculogenic impotence (65.2%). When compared to the controls, the odds ratio of developing vasculogenic impotence was 3.7 for both smoking + diabetes and smoking + hypertension and 3.2 for smoking alone. Smoking alone significantly affects penile hemodynamics after an exposure of at least 20 cigarettes/day for more than 30 years. When associated with hypertension or diabetes its deteriorating effect becomes more marked.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)51-53
Number of pages3
JournalActa Urologica Italica
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 1995


  • cholesterol
  • diabetes
  • hypertension
  • impotence
  • smoking

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Urology


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