The Importance of Understanding the Stages of COVID-19 in Treatment and Trials

Daniel O. Griffin, Denise Brennan-Rieder, Binh Ngo, Pierre Kory, Marco Confalonieri, Leland Shapiro, Jose Iglesias, Michael Dube, Neha Nanda, Gino K. In, Daniel Arkfeld, Preet Chaudhary, Vito M. Campese, Diana L. Hanna, David Sawcer, Glenn Ehresmann, David Peng, Miroslaw Smorgorzewski, April Amstrong, Eivind H. VinjevollRajkumar Dasgupta, Fred R. Sattler, Cristina Mussini, Oriol Mitjà, Vicente Soriano, Nicolas Peschanski, Gilles Hayem, Maria Carmela Piccirillo, António Lobo-Ferreira, Iraldo B. Rivero, Ivan F.H. Hung, Marc Rendell, Stephen Ditmore, Joseph Varon, Paul Marik

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


COVID-19, caused by SARS-CoV-2, continues to be a major health problem since its first description in Wuhan, China, in December 2019. Multiple drugs have been tried to date in the treatment of COVID-19. Critical to treatment of COVID-19 and advancing therapeutics is an appreciation of the multiple stages of this disease and the importance of timing for investigation and use of various agents. We considered articles related to COVID-19 indexed on PubMed published January 1, 2020-November 15, 2020, and considered papers on the medRxiv preprint server. We identified relevant stages of COVID-19 including three periods: pre-exposure, incubation, and detectable viral replication; and five phases: the viral symptom phase, the early inflammatory phase, the secondary infection phase, the multisystem inflammatory phase, and the tail phase. This common terminology should serve as a framework to guide when COVID-19 therapeutics being studied or currently in use is likely to provide benefit rather than harm.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)40-47
Number of pages8
JournalAIDS Reviews
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Feb 8 2021


  • Antivirals
  • COVID-19
  • Cytokine storm
  • Immunotherapy
  • Phases
  • SARS-CoV-2

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Infectious Diseases
  • Pharmacology (medical)


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